Middlesbrough Reference Library –

Redcar Reference Library –

Teesside Archives –

Thorne Moorends Town Council –

The Centre for Local Studies at Darlington Library –

Photos from the North East – and Steve Ellwood 

Creative Commons (Attribution) License –

Durham Telly – Documenting County Durham and the North of England – http:



Books and Articles

Barr, C. (ed.) (1986), All Our Yesterdays: 90 Years of British Cinema (London: British Film Institute).

Carson, R. (1977), A Short History of Middlesbrough (Middlesbrough: Middlesbrough Borough Council).

Dickinson, M. and Street, S. (1985), Cinema and State: The Film Industry and the Government 1927-84 (London: British Film Institute).

Dibbets K. and Hogenkamp B. (eds.) (1995), Film and the First World War (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press)

Eyles, A. (1996), Gaumont British Cinemas, (London: Cinema Theatre Association).

Fullerton, J. (ed.) (1998), Celebrating 1895 (London: John Libbey).

Gifford, D. (1973), The British Film Catalogue Volume 1, 3rd Edition, (London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers).

Gray, R. (1996), One Hundred Years of Cinema Architecture (London: Lund Humphries Publishers).

Higson, A. (ed.) (2002), Young and Innocent? The Cinema in Britain 1896-1930 (Exeter: University of Exeter Press).

Hiley, N. (1999), ‘ “Let’s go to the pictures” The British cinema audience in the 1920s and 1930s’, Journal of Popular British Cinema, Vol. 2, p. 40.

Johnson, D. (1992), The Cinemas of South Tyneside (Wakefield: Mercia Cinema Society).

Lillie, W. (1968), The History of Middlesbrough (Middlesbrough: The Mayor Aldermen & Burgesses of the County Borough of Middlesbrough).

Low, R. (1971), The History of the British Film 1918 – 1929 (London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.).

Manders, F. (1998), The Black Family of Sunderland: their Circuits and their Cinemas (Wakefield: Mercia Cinema Society)

Manders, F. (1991), Cinemas of Newcastle (Newcastle upon Tyne: City of Newcastle upon Tyne, City Libraries & Arts).

Mellor, G. J. (1971), Picture Pioneers The Story of the Northern Cinema 1896-1971(Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Frank Graham).

Peart, S. (1980), The Picture House in East Anglia (Lavenham: Terence Dalton Limited).

Saunders, J. W. (1991), Cinema in Middlesbrough (Redcar: J W Saunders).

Sharp, D. (1969), The Picture Palace (London: Hugh Evelyn Limited).

Thompson, K. and Bordwell, D. (1994), Film History, an Introduction (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.).


Trade Journals

The Bioscope

Kinematograph and Lantern Weekly

Kinematograph Year Books – 1914 to 1948


North-Eastern Daily Gazette

Northern Echo

Unpublished Theses

Pyle, A. (1986), Cinema in Middlesbrough 1908-1939 (Unpublished M. A. Dissertation, Teesside Polytechnic).